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All scenarios considered in this work xe a planning horizon equal to 40 years, which is the length of the contracts that have currently been established between the Brazilian Forest Services and concessionaires. Abstract Logging in natural forests is a 1124 economic activity in the Brazilian Amazon. The authors are also grateful to two anonymous reviewers for their valuable recommendations. Macpherson contributed to this work though he is a graduate student at the University of Florida, while receiving support from the Working Forests in the Tropics Program through a National Science Foundation Integrated Graduate Education and Research Traineeship Grant no.
In generalized mathematical terms, In this formulation, represents mutually exclusive land use alternatives for each stand. In either situation, expressed in 6represents the policy-driven minimum number of stands or the minimum score across alternative nonlogging land uses.
This map was used to identify areas within the FSF with high potential in the first scenario simulated and to 5 in the second for biodiversity conservation. The importance of this study is demonstrated in two ways. The same explanation given for the NPV curves in the last section is valid in explaining why MOCs for community use are larger than MOCs for biodiversity conservation since areas with potential for community use in the case of FSF are located near to roads and rivers and have higher profitability for logging.
Equation 4 maximizes profits from logging within a single year. For simplicity, we assume that the growth and yield of the harvested forest would be sufficient to restore the same merchantable volume in each timber volume class within each stand at the beginning of the second cutting cycle.
To meet this end, we combine the best available spatially explicit data on expected logging profits, biodiversity, and potential for 2060 use for use within 112884 land use optimization model.
Lfi decreased with an increase in the number of stands dedicated to communities. View at Google Scholar R. Second, it can be used to estimate the revenues that can be generated from concessions and the taxes that can be collected by government through a nondistortionary royalty mechanism. Figures 4 c and 4 d show results when weights are differentiated across stands with noncommodity use potential. Although this work was reviewed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official agency policy.
Table of Contents Alerts. The volume harvested is constrained by the available merchantable timber volume in the forest and the milling capacity of the logging centers surrounding the public forest. Datasets and technical assistance were provided by R.
International Journal of Forestry Research
In other words, the economic model maximizes the annual profits originated from the annual allowable area for harvest of Figures 4 a and 4 b show the share of the profits for loggers and government under this assumption.
Brazilian regulations establish that management decisions in each public forest will be guided by a management plan, which will be generated based on surveys in each public forest, including forest inventories, designated important sites for biological conservation and tourism, and the location and needs of traditional forest dwellers.
Percentage of stands harvested within Faro State Forest with an increasing number of stands converted to other land uses from ed logging centers a and from closer urban centers b. Fourth, at the landscape level, this model can help to determine the optimum level of timber production and spatial distribution of alternative land uses from public lands within a given region by taking into account future production trends of the logging industry.
20006 to the lack of suitable data, audit costs were assumed to se equivalent to certification audit costs, which vary depending on the size of the management unit. Our assumption in the model is that the government is able to use an unspecified nondistortionary royalty instrument 20006 does not influence harvest behavior to extract rents to the point that concessionaires just earn profits equivalent to those of operating legally on private lands. The experience across other countries shows that this assumption is extremely optimistic as governments have ee captured only a small proportion of the total rents [ 2829 ].
Brazil is moving ahead with its plan to establish a forest concessions system while trying to take full account of these experiences. The datasets used span the entire Brazilian Amazon, implying that the analysis can be repeated for any public forest planning effort within the region. The objective of this paper is to d an analytical tool to support this decisionmaking. Li, to simulate the PPF curves and investigate the tradeoffs among competing land uses, we used annual profits i.
As ofCalha Norte contained 64 million hectares of protected areas. Areas forbidden for logging were assigned 11824 harvesting in the model. For this reason, the objective function maximizes profits while taking land use constraints into account.
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While generating optimal land use configurations, the model enables an assessment of the market and nonmarket tradeoffs associated with different land use priorities. In a given public forest, government seeks to 112844 profits from logging.
The model can be used to investigate the impacts of concessions from public forests on the local demand and supply for timber in a given region. The model has several potential uses.
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In mathematical terms, The subscript represents individual forest stands within a given public forest. In the two multiple use scenarios investigated, the potential for logging was considered equal to 1 for any stand in which the estimate of logging profitability was greater than zero, and zero otherwise.
The land use choice for each stand is represented by a series of binary variableswhich take on a value of one if a particular land use is chosen, zero otherwise. We begin by establishing the basic selective logging timber supply problem, where the decision variables determine the amount of volume per ha to harvest. To give a better sense of the size of a cell in forest management terms, a cell of 2, hectares would represent a small-scale concession under the provisions of the PFML.
In the case of FSF, the decrease in the NPV caused by an increase in the proportion of the State Forest dedicated to community use is larger than the decrease caused by biodiversity conservation, ceteris paribus. For decisionmaking purposes, it is important to be able to estimate the royalty rate that permits the logging firm to just satisfy participation constraints.
Every three years the interval represented byBrazilian law requires independent audits of concessionaire performance within the concessions.
However, as a result of diminishing returns from management effort for multiple activities within the same stand, landscape-scale multiple use planning is perhaps most efficient when each stand has a unique use [ 13 ].
We currently do not have sufficient data to estimate economic returns to nonlogging land uses. Further research should include forest dynamics to better incorporate the long-term growth and yield of the harvested forests. Figures 5 c and 5 d show the frontier by applying differentiated weights for stands under these alternative uses, respectively, for community use and biodiversity conservation, using as a starting point the same NPV in the UL scenario.
Marginal opportunity costs for community use a and biodiversity conservation bassuming stands are weighted equally for nonlogging land uses within Faro State Forest; marginal opportunity costs considering different weights among stands for nonlogging land uses for community use c and biodiversity conservation d. Production possibility frontiers for logging and livelihood systems a and logging and biodiversity conservation bassuming stands are weighted equally for nonlogging land uses within Faro State Forest; production possibility frontiers considering different weights among stands for nonlogging land uses, for logging and livelihood systems cand logging and biodiversity conservation d.
These studies created maps identifying forests financially profitable for logging, based on wood prices and logging costs i. Forests are being depleted rapidly as adoption of sound forest management practices is still in the incipient stage [ 12 ].