Title Page / Vorwort / Inhaltsverzeichnis. Elsner H. Elsner H.: Krebsentstehung und endokrines System. Basel, Karger, , pp I-VI (DOI/). Translation for ‘Endokrines System’ in the free German-English dictionary and many other English translations. German-English Dictionary: Translation for endokrines System.
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In other languages Add links. Functions like digestion and urine production that eendokrines not critical to immediate survival slow down as blood vessels to these parts constrict. The pineal gland is found deep within the brain see diagram After moderate blood loss, several mechanisms come into play to increase blood pressure and make up blood volume.
This condition is known as shock. As the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood increases the blood becomes more acidic and the pH decreases. Adrenaline increases the amount of blood reaching them by causing their blood vessels to dilate and the heart to beat faster. The parathyroid glands are also found in the neck just behind the thyroid glands see diagram The pituitary gland is a pea-sized structure that is attached by a stalk to the underside of the cerebrum of the brain see diagram It does this by increasing the absorption of sodium ions Na- from the kidney tubules.
Syxtem blood loss is not extreme, various mechanisms come into play to compensate and ensure permanent tissue damage does not occur.
In contrast, hormones act more slowly and their effects may be long lasting. The main endocrine glands in the body are the pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroidand adrenal glandsthe pancreas, ovaries and testes. Anatomy and Physiology of Animals. In rodents and rabbits, however, it is spread thinly through the mesentery and is sometimes difficult to see.
To do either requires instant energy, particularly in the skeletal muscles. Another hormone, aldosterone, secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, also affects water balance indirectly.
Much of the carbon dioxide produced by respiration in cells is carried in the blood as carbonic acid. This increases water retention since it increases the osmotic pressure of the fluids around the tubules and water therefore endokrins out of them by osmosis.
Endokrines System – English translation – German-English dictionary
It produces the hormone thyroxinewhich influences the rate of growth and development of young animals. The initial response of both cats may include spitting, fighting and spine tingling yowling – all brought about by the nervous system. Fear and stress then activates the adrenal glands to secrete the hormone adrenaline which increases the heart and respiratory rates.
The adrenal glands are situated on the cranial surface of the kidneys see diagram A nerve impulse travels rapidly endorines produces an almost instantaneous response but one that lasts only briefly. They produce the hormone parathormone that regulates the amount of calcium in the blood and influences the excretion of phosphates in the urine.
Most of the pancreas acts as an exocrine gland producing digestive enzymes that are secreted into the small intestine. It controls the autonomic nervous systfmproduces a range of hormones and regulates the secretion of many others from the pituitary gland see Chapter 7 for more information on the hypothalamus. As mentioned in module 1.
Breathing is eystem of these mechanisms. Water is lost from the body by many routes see module 1. However, hormones only affect the specific target organs that recognize them.
Their positions in the body are shown in diagram High level of melatonin in dim light makes an animal tired and depressed and therefore causes low fertility in animals.
The body achieves this stability by constantly monitoring the internal conditions and if they deviate from the norm initiating processes that bring them back to it.
This mechanism is called feedback control. The normal pH of blood is in the range 7. Again it is the hypothalamus that monitors the concentration of the blood and initiates the release of hormones from the posterior pituitary gland. Views Read Edit View history. The heat is distributed through the body by the blood and is lost mainly through the skin surface.
Faced with a perilous situation the animal needs to either fight or make a rapid escape. Retrieved from ” https: Cells of the brain are particularly vulnerable. If mating occurs, other hormones stimulate the release of ova from the ovary of the female syshem a range of different hormones maintains pregnancy, delivery of the kittens and lactation.
Target cells respond to sstem quantities of hormones and the concentration in the blood is always extremely low. However, we now know that the pituitary gland is itself controlled by the hypothalamus. The concentration of the body fluids remains relatively constant irrespective of the diet or the quantity of water taken into the body by the animal.
This hormone regulates endokfines amount of glucose in the blood by increasing the rate at which glucose is converted to glycogen in the liver and the movement of glucose from the blood into cells.
Biochemical processes in the cells, particularly in muscles and the liver, produce heat. Animals can only survive if the environment within their bodies and their cells is kept constant and independent of the changing conditions in the external environment.
An increased rate of breathing increases the amount of oxygen in the blood and glucose is released from the liver to provide the fuel for energy production.