Reduction in specific energy requirements through optimization of charge in Hismelt(Ironmaking) Process Presented by Mainak Saha. ABSTRACT. Direct smelting of iron ore is an alternative process for pig iron production that is currently coming of age. The. HIsmelt Direct. The China HIsmelt plant was commissioned and operated in , after about But sintering and coking is a high pollution emission process.

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Posted by Satyendra on Jul 2, in Technical 2 comments. HIsmelt is short rpocess high intensity smelting. The process has been developed to treat iron ore fines with minimum pretreatment, making the process more flexible in terms of the quality of iron ore it can treat.

The process allows the use of non coking coal and iron ore fines with significant impurities. The core prrocess the HIsmelt process is the smelt reduction vessel SRV which has a refractory lined hearth and water cooled hismet shell.

The process is carried out in this vessel. The refractory hearth contains the molten iron bath and liquid slag. The main product of the process is liquid iron or hot metal which can be used in steel melting shop or cast in pig casting machine to produce pig iron.

The byproduct of the process is slag and the off gas.

HIsarna ironmaking process – Wikipedia

Trials were conducted in a 60 tons OBM converter to demonstrate the fundamentals of the smelt reduction process. The SSPP operated from to and proved the viability of the technology. Construction of the HRDF with a design capacity oftons per annum, commenced in The main objective of the HRDF was to demonstrate the process and engineering scale up of the core plant and to provide operating data for commercial evaluation.

The horizontal vessel was operated from October to August Whilst scale-up of the process was successfully demonstrated, the complexity of engineering a horizontal vessel limited its commercial viability. To overcome this deficiency a design was developed for water cooled vertical vessel.

Design and engineering for the vertical SRV Fig 1 was completed in The main improvements incorporated into the design included a stationary vertical vessel, top injection of solids, a simplified hot air blast lance, a fore hearth for continuous tapping of metal and water cooled panels to overcome refractory wear problems. HRDF vertical smelt reduction vessel was commissioned in the first half of and operated through to May The vertical vessel demonstrated major improvements in terms of refractory wear, reliability, availability, productivity and simplicity in design.


This vessel addressed all the key requirements for a successful direct smelting iron making technology — combining a high level of technical achievements with simple engineering concepts and plant technology.

This stage of operation confirmed that the process was ready to be scaled up to level of a commercial plant. Located in Kwinana, Western Australia, the merchant pig iron facility was designed and engineered with a 6 meter hearth diameter SRV.

Construction of the plant was started in January Cold commissioning commenced in the second half hlsmelt while the hot commissioning was carried prkcess in second quarter The plant had achieved a production rate of 80 tons of hot metal per hour in early with a coal rate of kg per ton of hot metal.

The plant is presently in the closed down condition. To develop the HIsmelt technology further, Rio Tinto has signed a development agreement with a Chinese steelmaker. The new plant is expected to be commissioned in The partnership seeks to finalize the development of HIsmelt technology and to work together to further improve the technology to higher levels of environmental and economic performance.

HIsarna ironmaking process

The basic mechanism of the process hiskelt the reduction and smelting of the iron bearing ores with the dissolved carbon in the bath. The process uses high velocity injection of coal and ore into the melt through downwardly angled water cooled injection lances. Injected iron ore fines are injected deep into the bath where they are reduced instantly on contact with carbon dissolved in the bath for smelting to take place. This reduction reaction produces iron Fe and carbon monoxide CO.

Reaction gas CO and coal devolatilization products which are generated from deep within prlcess bath form a fountain of mostly slag and some metal. Heat supply to maintain the necessary thermal balance comes by the combustion of reaction procesw mostly CO in the upper part of the SRV.

This combustion occurs in the relatively oxidizing hismeelt in the upper section of the SRV. The heat transfer between the upper oxidizing regions to the lower reducing region is achieved in such a way that the oxygen potential gradient is maintained. This is done through large amounts of liquid splash moving between the two regions.

Liquid slag and metal splash acts as a carrier of the heat. The main product of the process is hot metal.

Hot metal is tapped continuously through an open forehearth and is free of slag. Typical temperature of procese metal is around — deg C and typical composition of the hot metal is as follows:.


Hence this process has flexibility to use high phosphorus containing ores. Since the slag is batch tapped through a slag notch, the hot metal is slag free.

Byproducts of the process are slag and off gas.

Slag is formed by fluxing the gangue in the iron ore and ash in the coal with lime and dolomite. Slag can be procfss or directed into pits for further processing. Hismekt is cleaned, cooled and used as a fuel and for power generation. HIsmelt process is highly flexible. The highly responsive nature of the process means that it converts iron ore, coal and flux to metal, slag and energy almost instantaneously.

These process capabilities allow for raw material feed rates to be changed very efficiently without affecting product quality.

This operating flexibility maximizes productivity, as it is easy to maintain a steady state operating window. Unlike blast furnaces, the HIsmelt process can be started, stopped or idled with ease.

Typical flow sheet of the process is shown in Fig 2 and the typical layout of the process is in Fig 3. The environmental benefits of the HIsmelt process are considerable. The projected improvements from the process are as follows. Further there is big reduction in dust emissions and specific wate consuption. The process by recycling of the plant waste further helps in environment protection.

Blast furnace process is no doubt proven route globally. Any other technology to reach the level of BF will take a lot of time. But some iron making technologies like finex, HIsmelt and HIsarna are technologically sound and have potential to have better techno-economics.

HIsmelt process of Ironmaking |

However they need support of some dedicated entreprenuers to prpcess to the world that they are better technologies. Once there are successful operating references available for these technologies then all the future installations will be of these technology based iron making units. If BF is present then these technologies are the future. Your email address will not be published.

HIsmelt process of Ironmaking

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