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A munition is placed on its side on the ground surface and sandbags are placed around all four sides and the top of do munition with a 6- inch standoff from the munition. The results from the BEM software are compared to the results obtained by applying the method by hand.

ABS Group Training Instructors | Chris Leboeuf

If the energy release is relatively close to the surface, the cavity or void vents to the atmosphere and a crater is formed. The coe of the hand calculations and the BEM calculations are shown in Figures 2 and 3. A standard fragment is assumed. Figure 1 – Maximum Ejecta Radii for Large Soil Chunks [2] Due to the nature of the equations used in BEM, the calculations will never result in a final fragment velocity and corresponding fragment range of zero.

Otherwise, the fragment velocity as it exits the soil is calculated using equation 6. Preliminary calculations for a variety of munitions show that by a distance of one ti from the center of the explosion, the fragment velocity is approximately twice that of the soil particles.

USAESCH is involved in a test program to determine the thickness of sandbags necessary to defeat the primary fragments from a munition detonated on the ground surface. The BEM software produces the same results as when the method is applied by hand.

Therefore, there is not full coupling between the explosive event and the sandbags whereas BEM assumes full coupling between the explosive event and the soil. At the end of the test program, a full report of these results will be available.

These radii are shown in Figure 5. Camouflet is formed 4. Therefore, as a conservative estimate, all of the soil is assumed to have a density of one-half its undisturbed density for the purposes of calculating the drag coefficient on the fragment velocity.

If the depth of burial is zero surface burst the fragment does not pass through any soil and the velocity of the fragment is the initial velocity. There is no added benefit to burying the munition any deeper until reaching the depth at which a camouflet foe formed.


The results from these tests are compared to the results from BEM in Table 3. Box Huntsville, AL Telephone: The line shown in this figure has been specified by an equation and this equation has been included in BEM. Comparison with the sandbag test results and consideration of some of the differences between the physical parameters of the tests and this analytical method indicates that this method generally produces conservative results.

Which suggests that for at least a portion of the burial depth the fragment is travelling through undisturbed soil. This software coe described in the following sections. In most cases the explosion causes a crater.

Soil from the crater is also thrown away from the center of the explosion becoming hazardous. Tlc, where a crater is formed a burial depth may be found where toc fragment range will be less than the soil ejecta range.

BlastX Analysis

The theory used in BEM is discussed. The pre-defined list of soils include dry sand, wet sand, dry sandy clay, wet sandy clay, dry clay, and wet clay. The software will be do and an example presented.

BEM does not include commands to view or print the results directly. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, Jefferson Davis Highway, SuiteArlington VA Also, where a crater is formed, the soil ejecta range is greater than the sandbag throw.

tuc However, if the munition is buried deeply enough a camouflet is formed instead and no soil is ejected from the site. Is a crater or a camouflet formed? The sandbag tests are run with a standoff between the munition and the sandbag. The hazards to personnel and public that are of the most concern are overpressure and noise and fragmentation.

The method addresses cratering and soil ejecta effects as well as primary fragmentation from the munition. The input required for the software is detailed and two example problems are given.

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The Structural Branch has developed software to simplify and standardize the calculations to determine the withdrawal distance due to fragmentation and soil ejecta due to the detonation of a buried munition. The results from the BEM software dle mitigation of primary fragments by tamped earth are compared to the results of the sandbag tests completed to date. The burial depths determined using BEM are approximately twice the required thickness of sandbags from the sandbag tests.


However, it is not clear at this time for which portion of the burial depth this is true. The user is prompted to 1268 the following values. Some commonly found munitions have been analyzed and the explosive weight, initial velocity and maximum fragment weights are shown in Table 1. The buried explosion module BEM is a program designed to be used to calculate the residual velocity of fragments produced by a buried munition and the maximum ejecta radius of large soil chunks produced by the buried explosion.

If the energy release is sufficiently deep below the surface a void, called a camouflet, is formed. If X is greater than Y, a gic will be formed. Due to calculation restraints division by the depth of burialif the depth of ric is zero the software assumes a depth of burial of 0.

To be consistent with the primary fragment calculations, the maximum range of the soil ejecta should be used. Write statements were inserted to dor intermediate results. If X is less than Y, a crater will be formed. The soil slows down the fragments and, in some cases, may stop the fragments completely. Examination of the original soil ejecta data from AFWL-TR [5] shows that the average ratio between the maximum soil ejecta range and the range of one hazardous ejecta per square feet is 1.

Ttic soil properties are used for each of these soil types. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The munition is detonated using a perforating shaped charge.

Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB dod number.