Centro de Investigación y Control de la Calidad (CICC) · Centro Nacional de Alimentación (CNA); Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia de Biotoxinas Marinas. Actividades del Laboratorio Comunitario de Referencia de Biotoxinas Marinas. In : Avances y Tendencias en Fitoplancton Tóxino y Biotoxinas (ISBN. XIII Reunión Ibérica de Algas Tóxicas y biotoxinas marinas Vigo (Spain), th June CLIMATE CHANGE DRIVERS IMPACTS.
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In addition, a slowly progressing paralysis was observed in the mouse assay using the mussel extracts.
The second group, neutral toxins, consists of polyether-lactones of the pectenotoxin group PTXs. The fat soluble DSP toxins accumulate in the fatty tissue of the bivalves.
¿Qué son las biotoxinas?
It was then that azaspiracid formerly called Killary Toxin-3 or KT3 was identified and the new toxic syndrome was called azaspiracid poisoning AZP. Incomplete elimination of harmful organisms is caused by the incomplete discharge of water and sediments in the ballast tank during reballasting Zhang and Dickman, It is this lack of warning signal that has contributed to the dread of ciguatera poisoning De Fouw et al.
Fast-growing algae quickly strip away nutrients in the upper layer, leaving nitrogen and phosphorus only below the interface of the layers, called the pycnocline. These incidents prompted the regulatory authorities in the United States to conduct a massive survey of many marine species for the presence of DA.
In this way the survival of certain dinoflagellates from one season to the other season is assured Mons et al.
These PSP toxins are accumulated by shellfish grazing on algae producing these toxins. In fatal cases, respiratory paralysis occurs within 2 to 12 hours of consumption of the PSP contaminated food.
It is not clear why some micro-algal species produce toxins. Most of the harmful species have a restricted distribution pattern but some harmful species have a worldwide distribution Hallegraeff et al. The causative toxin the excitatory amino acid domoic acid or DA was produced by the diatom species Pseudo-nitzschiapungens f. The third group includes a sulphated polyether and its derivatives the yessotoxins YTXs see Figures 3.
Furthermore, there are micro-algal species about 75 which have the capacity to produce potent toxins called phycotoxins that can niotoxinas their way through levels of the food chain e. The brevetoxins bootoxinas toxic to fish, marine mammals, birds and humans, but not to shellfish.
DSP toxins can be divided into different groups depending on chemical structure. Most regulations are set for PSP toxins as a group. Other algal species can be harmful to fish and invertebrates especially in intensive aquaculture systems by damaging or clogging their gills. Mid-water exchange in regional seas may reduce the risk from polluted European harbour waters but may result in the transportation of potentially harmful phytoplankton species from the regional seas Macdonald and Davidson, Until now, five groups of shellfish toxins have been distinguished, namely:.
The symptoms included abdominal cramps, vomiting, disorientation and memory loss amnesia. In the past, the ciguatera food poisoning in humans was highly localized to coastal, often island communities of indigenous peoples. An unusual feature of Gymnodinium breve is the formation by wave action of toxic aerosols which can lead to asthma-like symptoms in humans.
They are probably used by their producers as a way to compete for space, fight predation or as a defence against the overgrowth of other organisms Botana et al. At this time, ASP caused three deaths and cases of acute human poisoning following the consumption of blue mussels.
Changed patterns of land use, such as deforestation, can also cause shifts in phytoplankton species composition by increasing the concentrations of humic substances in land runoff. In earlymore than human shellfish poisonings were reported from New Zealand caused by an organism similar to G. Acid precipitation can further increase the mobility of humic substances and trace metals in soils Hallegraeff, In Octoberextracts of razor clams from the coast of Oregon were found to induce DA acid-like symptoms in mice.
Shellfish grazing on these algae can accumulate the toxins but the shellfish itself is rather resistant to the harmful effects of these toxins.
The conditions for an algal bloom are not yet fully elucidated but the phenomenon is probably influenced by climatic and hydrographic circumstances Van Egmond and Speijers, It is even possible that algal species which are normally not toxic may be rendered toxic when exposed to atypical nutrient regimes e.
However, as yet it is unclear whether the increase is real, whether it could be a consequence of improved identification, detection and medical registration, or whether it is due to expanded shellfish culture and consumption. There are no reasons to assume that shellfish intoxication can be predicted by the properties of the regional area.
Aecosan – Agencia Española de Consumo, Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutrición
These neurotoxic symptoms were quite different from typical DSP toxicity Satake et al. Since these incidents, global awareness of DA and its producing sources has been raised Wright and Quilliam, The transportation of dinoflagellate resting cysts, especially from paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin producers McMinn et al. On the other hand, some species can bloom so densely, under exceptional conditions in sheltered bays, that they indiscriminately kill fish and invertebrates due to oxygen depletion.
During the past two decades, the frequency, intensity and geographic distribution of harmful algal blooms has increased, along with the number of toxic compounds found in the marine food chain. In general, red tides often occur when maginas or freshwater runoff creates a stratified surface layer above colder, nutrient-rich waters.
DSP symptoms are diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain starting 30 minutes to a few hours after ingestion and complete recovery occurs within three days. The causative toxins, the ciguatoxins, accumulate through the food chain, from small herbivorous fish grazing on the coral reefs into organs of bigger carnivorous fish that feed on them Angibaud and Rambaud, ; Lehane, This diatom was consumed by anchovies that in viotoxinas were eaten by the birds.
In Septemberthe unexplained deaths of pelicans and cormorants in Monterey Bay, California were attributed jarinas an outbreak of DA poisoning produced by a related diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis.