API Spec 12J. Specification for Oil and Gas Separators, Eighth Edition. standard by American Petroleum Institute, 10/01/ View all product details. Find the most up-to-date version of API SPEC 12J at Engineering Organization: API. Publication Date: 1 October Status: active. Page Count: The API 12J  recommends ranges of KS –values for vertical and horizontal gas -liquid separators. Per API 12J, “the maximum allowable superficial velocity, calculated form the above factors, is .. October, 8. PF
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We will consider both vertical and horizontal gas-liquid separators. K S as a function of pressure and liquid droplet size for vertical separators with no mist extractor devices . The mist extractor is the final gas cleaning device in a conventional separator.
API Spec 12J
The design parameter, K Sin the Souders-Brown equation is an empirical parameter and is a key factor for the sizing the gas-liquid separators vessel diameter as well as for determination of the mist extractor diameter. The primary separation mechanism 2080 liquid impingement onto the wires, followed by coalescence into droplets large enough to disengage from the mesh pad.
Substitution of Equations 3 and 4 into Equation 1 and solving for the gas maximum velocity. Read more about subscriptions. This specification covers minimum requirements for the design, fabrication, and plant testing of oil and gas separators and oil-gas-water separators that are used in the production of oil and gas, and are located at some point on the producing flow line between the wellhead and pipeline. Once the maximum gas velocity, V Gmaxthrough the vessel is determined by Equation 2, one can calculate the minimum vessel diameter, D min by Equation 3.
The volume of spherical droplet, V Dis calculated by. PetroSkills offers consulting expertise on this subject and many others.
There are two methods for sizing gas-liquid separators: This is particularly important for separators handling higher 12h loads.
Therefore, the maximum gas velocity aoi prevents entrainment of liquid is obtained. Figure 4 shows the location and function of a typical mist extractor in a vertical separator. Table 5 was originally developed for mesh pads, but is used as an approximation for other mist extractor types.
Assume vane-pack K S — value decline with pressure as shown in Table 5. The SBA is limited in that it is based on the average droplet size, but cannot quantify the amount of liquid droplets exiting the gas gravity section and mist extractor section. Each segment was fitted to a linear equation in the form of Equation 7 and its regressed coefficients e and f are presented in Tables 3A and 3B for FPS and SI units, respectively.
The vane-pack manufacturer should be contacted for specific information. If we consider a spherical liquid droplet with a diameter of D P in the gas phase two forces as shown in Figure 1 act on it. For practical applications, the first term on the right hand side is replaced by K S.
The performance of a gas-liquid separator is highly dependent on the 122j of K S ; therefore, the choice of appropriate K S —values is important. If we consider a spherical liquid droplet aapi a diameter of, D Pin the gas phase two forces as shown in Figure 1 act on it.
This is typically characterized by a K S —value, as shown in Equation 2. Most importantly — mist extractor type and design e. Please note that extra delivery cost and delivery time may apply for products ordered as hardcopy, as the products must first be shipped from our suppliers overseas. The horizontal separator sizing is a trial-and-error procedure. For the higher liquid load applications, i. This rate should allow all liquid droplets larger than 10 microns to settle out of the gas.
The K s method, Equation 2, is aip empirical approach to estimate the maximum allowable gas velocity to achieve a desired droplet separation.
The drag force, F Dis exerted by flow of gas and gravity force, F Gis exerted by the weight of droplet.
Vane packs, like mesh pads, capture droplets primarily by inertial impaction. Subscription – always available and updated A web subscription provides an easy and secure access to standards, and you are guaranteed to always have the latest edition. The two curves for micron droplet size in Figure 2 were divided into 4 and 2 segments based on pressure range for the lower and upper curves, respectively.
In the following sections, we will discuss three sources. You need to log in before adding standards to the monitoring service. Mesh pads are the most common type of mist extractors used in vertical separator applications. Mesh pad K S deration factors as a function of pressure .
The benefits of a subscription: Mesh pads K S and performance parameters [3, 5, 8] Notes: References  provide the details on the droplet settling theory methods which can be used to more accurately quantify separator performance. Mist extractor capacity is defined by the gas velocity at which re-entrainment of the liquid collected in the device becomes appreciable. Equation 6 is called Souder-Brown equation and K S is referred to as the design 12k. One can also use the appropriate value of K S to size the mist extractor in the vessel.
Assume mesh pad K S a;i value decline with pressure as shown in Table 5. Assuming plug flow with no eddies or disturbances, a single droplet and ignoring the end effect, at equilibrium free fall or terminal velocitythese two forces are equal.
API 12J Spec for Oil and Gas Separators – PDF Free Download
Sizing of the horizontal separators are more complicated. In a future TOTM 21j will discuss the droplet settling theory methods which can be used to more accurately quantify separator performance. The maximum allowable superficial velocity or other design criteria should be considered for other type mist extractor.
Equation 2 is called Souders-Brown  equation and K S is referred to as the design or sizing parameter. As presented in the Appendix, substitution of expressions for the drag and gravity forces in Equation 1, the maximum allowable gas velocity, V Gmaxwhich prevents entrainment of liquid is obtained.
aip Droplet settling theory method, 2. Its value depends on several factors including:. The Souders-Brown method is limited in that it is based on the 2080 droplet size, but cannot quantify the amount of liquid droplets exiting the gas gravity section.
Note for each droplet size a range of K S —values are given for a specified pressure. The last row of Table 2 provides the average absolute percent deviation AAPD of the predicted K S by the proposed correlation from the corresponding values of Figure 2 values.